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Renal diet quiz

Educational resources for renal medicine

Licensed under a Creative Commons LicenseCreative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


We recommend you write down your answers before revealing them - this makes them stick in your head better. You can print out the quiz and the answers as pdfs from our diet resources page. One point for each answer for Qs 1-12; 13 and 14 as indicated.



1 (a) The average daily intake of NaCl in the UK is ...

  • 6g
  • 8g
  • 7g
  • 9g

(b) And what is this in mmol of sodium?

  Click here for answers.


2 (a) What is the Department of Health’s recommendation for NaCl intake for the general population in the UK?

  • 4g/day
  • 6g/day
  • 5g/day
  • 8g/day

(b) And what is this in mmol of sodium?

Click here for answers


3. Renal patients are advised to follow a “No added salt” (NAS) diet. This is equivalent to:

  • 22mmol
  • 60-80mmol
  • 40mmol
  • 80-100mmol
Click here for answer


4. How much sodium is there in 1g sodium bicarbonate ?

  • 9mmol
  • 13mmol
  • 11mmol
  • 15mmol
Click here for answer.


5. True or false? Salt substitutes (eg. Lo Salt) are suitable for use by renal patients? Explain your answer.

Click here for answer.


6. By reducing intake of which nutrient can help control itching?

  • Potassium
  • Salt
  • Fat
  • Phosphate


7. When should phosphate binders be taken?


8. By reducing which nutrient can help prevent thirst?

  • Sugar
  • Fibre
  • Salt
  • Fat
  • Potassium


9. True or False? All renal patients must take a phosphate binder with every meal.

Click here for answer.


10. Acidosis can be a contributing factor in:

  • hypokalaemia
  • hyperkalaemia
  • hyperphosphataemia


11. Calcium Resonium is used to treat:

  • hyperphosphataemia
  • hyperkalaemia
  • acidosis

12. True or False? Dietary potassium restrictions are usually less strict for patients on peritoneal dialysis than haemodialysis.


13. List 5 causes of malnutrition in the renal patient. (0.5 points per answer up to max 2.5)

Click here for answer.


14. Case study: A 52 year old woman has renal failure secondary to APCKD and has been on haemodialysis for 4 years. Here is her diet diary:

Breakfast: Fruit and Fibre cereal with semi skimmed milk
Coffee with semi skimmed milk
Glass of fresh orange juice
Mid Morning: Coffee with semi skimmed milk
Lunch: Cheddar cheese/ham and tomato sandwich
Mid-afternoon: Packet of crisps
Small glass orange squash
Dinner: Chicken and mushroom casserole
Boiled potatoes
Steamed carrots and broccoli
Tinned fruit with cream
Evening: Cup of black tea
2 x chocolate digestives

Salt: Adds small amount in cooking and at the table.
Milk: Approx 1/3 pint /day.
Fluid restriction: 1L per day.
Relevant medications: Takes one calcium carbonate tablet per day with evening meal


(a)  She has a pre-dialysis potassium of 6.5mmol/l. What changes could be made to reduce the potassium content of this diet?

(up to 2 marks for the perfect answer)

(b) She is gaining approximately 3kg of fluid between HD sessions. On going through their current intake in detail, they realise that they are tending to exceed their fluid restriction, and are therefore given advice on this. Is there another aspect of their diet that could help? Could you suggest some changes?
(up to 2 marks for the perfect answer)

(c)  A few weeks later, her phosphate level is 2.2mmol/l. What could you suggest to decrease their dietary phosphate intake? Is their any alterations to their medications that may help?
(up to 2 marks for the perfect answer)

Click here for answers.
Page last modified 22.11.2016, 12:57 by Emma Farrell. edrep and edren are produced by the Renal Unit at the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh and Univ. Edinburgh. CAUTIONS and Contact us. Note that the information published here is primarily intended for education, not for clinical care.